The sheer inertia of an enormous and complex organization, the drag of powerful vested interests, the helplessness of individuals with intelligent schemes of reform—this is what strikes the historian in studying the church of the later Middle Ages.
You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. Thesis is confused, or absent, or merely restates the question B. Church property was seized, and Catholic worship was forbidden in most territories that adopted the Lutheran Reformation.
The moratorium kept peace in the German lands for over a decade, yet Protestantism became further entrenched, and spread, during its term.
Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory. Known as Sociniansafter the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland.
However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther. England defeats Spanish Armada P - In the midst of all of this religious strife, the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal were sending explorers out into the world to establish trade routes to India.
Uneven organization — reader has difficulty following progression of argument; uneven academic tone E. In GenevaCalvin was able to experiment with his ideal of a disciplined community of the elect.
Overview After the tumultuous, horrible times of the Middle Ages, it was time for society to be reborn.
Failure to comply would result in prosecution by the Imperial Court. Luther then turned to life as a monk, where he felt increasingly discouraged An overview of the age of reformation God and felt weary that he had to work to please God at all times.
Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Schmalkaldic War and Second Schmalkaldic War Destruction of the fortress above the village of Godesberg during the Cologne War, ; the walls were breached by mines, and most of the defenders were put to death.
Harris Harbison shows why sixteenth-century Europe was ripe for a catharsis. The Empire was a fragmented collection of practically independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as their titular ruler; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg.
Those beliefs continued to dominate America for hundreds of years, up until the latter half of the 20th century. The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16th century.
In conclusion, because it depicted a strong sense of humanism, it led to the exposure of great individuals, and it showed the increased power of the church and wealthy elites, the Renaissance period of art greatly reflected the shift from the Dark Ages to the rebirth of the Renaissance.
Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, John R. He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Humanism, in the end, was a huge factor in influencing and reflecting Renaissance Art.
Harris Harbison unfolds before our eyes a sweeping but comprehensive picture of the Reform as a basic trend, underlying all the various particular tendencies. This prompted intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics.
By the end of the 16th century the Rhine lands and those of southern Germany remained largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century.
These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate. Scripture alone is authoritative sola scriptura and justification is by faith sola fidenot by works.
Returned to the classics of Ancient Rome and Greece and enlighten themselves. Created Lutheranism, popular branch of Christianity, largely a cause of the Religious Wars. Catholics fought against the Protestants and rulers fought against various Christian sects that did not affiliate with their particular beliefs.
Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas E - In Northern GermanyLuther adopted the tactic of gaining the support of the local princes and city elites in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines.
For further treatment of the Reformation, see Protestantism, history of. Many different Christian denominations are being worshipped in America today.
In spite of its political implicationsthe reorganization of the church permitted the beginning of religious change in England, which included the preparation of a liturgy in English, the Book of Common Prayer.Watch video · Martin Luther (November 10, to February 18, ) was a German monk who began the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, becoming one of the most influential and controversial figures in.
The European wars of religion are also known as the Wars of the Reformation (and Counter-Reformation).     The wars were closely connected to the theological disputes within Western Christendom, which erupted after the publication of Martin Luther 's Ninety-five Theses in Erasmus and the Age of Reformation summary and study guide are also available on the mobile version of the website.
So get hooked on and start relishing the Erasmus and the Age of Reformation overview and detailed summary. The Reformation, a 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority promoted by Martin Luther, King Henry VIII and others, led to the Thirty Years War and the Counter-Reformation.
Apr 11, · A summary of the info in the chapters in the book for my course. Chapter 9 - The Late Middle Ages; Monday, April 11, Chapter 11 - The Age of Reformation Protestant Reformation occurred during conflict between nation-states in Europe.
First in imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland The church sanctioned age. The Protestant Reformation was a 16th century movement that altered the course of European and world history in a number of different ways.
This movement led to the eventual influence and demise of the previously powerful Catholic Church.Download